Tire / Wheel Installation Procedures
RECOMMENDED AFTERMARKET WHEEL INSTALLATION PROCEDURES
Read your Owner's Manual and the following installation instructions and warnings before installing wheels.
Failure to comply with these instructions and warnings could cause an unsafe condition and result in serious injury or death to the installer and/or occupants of the vehicle.
MAXIMUM LOAD RATING & MAXIMUM TIRE DIAMETER
It is recommended that the load rating of a wheel as determined by the wheel manufacturer, either by a stamp on the actual wheel or in the wheel manufacturer's literature, never be exceeded. If such a load rating is not available, it is recommended that the wheel not be used on vehicle. Wheel load rating requirements are determined by dividing the vehicle's heaviest gross axle weight rating (G.A.W.R.) by 2. The axle weight rating for most vehicles is shown on the identification label located on driver's side door jamb, gas tank door, trunk lid or glove compartment. REGARDLESS OF THE TIRE'S MAXIMUM LOAD RATING, DO NOT EXCEED THE MAXIMUM LOAD RATING OF THE WHEEL.
EXCEEDING THE MAXIMUM LOAD RATING OR MAXIMUM TIRE DIAMETER OF THE WHEEL IS UNSAFE AND COULD CAUSE WHEEL FAILURE, RESULTING IN SERIOUS DAMAGE OR INJURY. EACH MANUFACTURER HAS THEIR OWN METHOD OF IDENTIFYING A WHEEL'S MAXIMUM LOAD RATING AND TIRE DIAMETER - CHECK BACK OF WHEEL.
WHEEL FIT CHECK
Perform a Wheel Fit Check using the following steps before mounting tires. This check must be done at each wheel mounting location.
1. Remove front wheels from vehicle.
2. Wire brush wheel mounting surface and threaded studs on vehicle.
3. Remove spring clip retainers, if applicable.
4. Hold the new custom wheel on the hub and check for a flush mount of the wheel to the mounting surface of the vehicle. The backside of the wheel must not rest or touch brake drum balancing weights, any brake caliper, suspension component, balance weights, rivets or other obstructions. The mounting surface of the wheel must fit flush to the vehicle's hub mounting surface.
Possible obstructions to check for:
Brake Drum Balancing Weights, Spring Clip Retainers, Brake Drum Rivets
Spring clip retainers are often overlooked and must be removed. If clips or other obstructions are not removed, they will not let the wheel sit flush against the mounting surface. This will give you a false torque reading which could cause the lug nuts to become loose and result in loss of a wheel, contributing to serious damage or injury. Some manufacturers do not use spring clip retainers. This application has nuts that hold the brake assembly together. THESE NUTS MUST NOT BE REMOVED.
5. Install three lug nuts finger tight and rotate the wheel to check caliper and suspension clearance and to find bent flanges or axles.
6. Perform the same check for the remaining three wheels on the vehicle, starting in the rear.
Modifications to the wheel or use of spacers or adapters to resolve clearance or fitment problems, becomer the installer's / modifier's responsibility.
Before installation, always make sure you have the correct lug nuts, wheel locks and center caps designed specifically for the wheel and application.
The two basic types of center caps are either inserted from the back or attached from the front. For the type inserted from the back, always make sure the flange of the cap matches the wheel's chamfer and is below the mounting surface of the wheel. If the flange of the cap protrudes beyond the mounting surface of the wheel, it will not let the wheel seat properly. If this happens, it will give you a false torque reading and the lug nuts may become loose, resulting in damage or injury.
Wheels and tires are clearly marked with their sizes. Take extra caution to make sure the wheel and tire match before mounting.
1. Mount tire according to the tire machine's recommended procedures, including but not limited to eye protection.
2. The tire manufacturer's rim width recommendatoins must be followed in wheel size selection. Reference: The Tire and Rim Association Year Book.
3. Be sure the tire changing equipment does not grip or scrape the wheel's plated, painted or aluminum surfaces. Protect these surfaces by padding or other appropriate means.
4. The hold-down cone normally used to hold an original equipment steel wheel in place on a tire mounting machine should not be used on an aluminum wheel, unless the proper adapter is used. The Center hole on aluminum wheels will be damaged by this hold-down cone unless the proper adapter is used.
5. Use approved tire mounting lubricant. Lubricant should be liberally applied to both the tire bead and bead seat area of the wheel on both sides.
6. Be careful that the bottom bead breaker on changing equipment does not hit the bottom of the wheels as it travels upwards. Aluminum wheels have thicker rim sections than steel wheels and the bottom bead breaker could hit the aluminum wheel, causing fracture or damage. If the bead breaker will hit the wheel, do not mount the tire until you have obtained the proper shims or other equipment from the tire changer manufacturer to overcome this potential problem.
7. Do not exceed 40 pounds of pressure when seating the tire to the head of the rim. If tire bead does not seat on wheel with 40 pounds of pressure, DEFLATE, TURN 180 degrees, RELUBRICATE and check for tire/wheel size mismatch. In addition, never exceed the tire manufacturer's maximum air pressure in tire.
8. Do not inflate the mounted tire with the center hold-down cone tightened on wheel. Loosen to let the tire expand but not completely remove. Never stand over tire/wheel assembly (the trajectory zone) during inflation. Always stand to the side.
Wheel manufacturer warranties do not cover tire to fender clearance or tire to suspension clearances. These clearances can be a problem and must be fit-checked before mounting all the tires. The following procedures must be followed:
1. Mount one tire on a wheel intended for use on the front of the vehicle.
2. Install the tire/wheel assembly on the front hub and with the vehicle still on the lift, turn the steering from extreme right to extreme left while checking for any interference with fender well or suspension components.
3. Lower the vehicle and repeat Step 2 with the weight of the vehicle applied.
4. Have someone bounce the front of the vehicle and check for tire rub. Do not put hands or fingers between tire and vehicle while checking.
5. Mount one tire on a wheel intended for use on the rear of the vehicle.
6. Install the tire/wheel assembly on the rear hub and check for interference, especially when on the ground and being bounced.
1. Balance tire/wheel assembly according to the balancing machine's recommended procedures including but not limited to eye protection.
2. To reduce tire wear, road noise and vibration, it is highly recommended that all four wheels be balanced dynamically.
3. Wheels are checked for lateral and radial runout before leaving the factory to minimize balancing problems. If you have problems balancing, review the instructions for wheel fit check. A suggested remedy to some balancing problems is to deflate the tire and rotate it approximately 180 degrees on the rim. Re-inflate the tire and rebalance.
1. Clean and inspect all stud threads and mounting surfaces before installation. THREADS MUT NOT BE LUBRICATED, but must be free of corrosion, rust, burns, fractures and damaged threads. Replace studs if they are corroded, stripped or damaged, or if any fractures are found. Always use new lug nuts when installing new wheels.
2. Check and be certain the approved lug nuts are correct for the application.
LUG NUTS: It is critical that the lug nut matches the thread diameter, pitch and seat, otherwise the installation will be improper, and may result in damage to your wheels and could cause a dangerous condition. The three basic types of lug nuts are: conical seat (60 degrees taper "acorn" and "bulge"), mag or shank style, and spherical or ball seat.
Thread diameter refers to the diameter of the stud measured across the shank at the outer edges of the threads. Thread-pitch means either the number of threads per inch or if metric, the distance in millimeters between threads. The Seat means the area on the wheel where the lug nut will clamp down.
Never use a conical seat lug nut/bolt on a mag or shank type lug seat and never use a mag or shank type lug nut/bolt on a conical seat. The two are not compatible and if installed incorrectly, the lug nuts may lose torque, possibly resulting in wheel loss or contributing to damage or injury. In addition, spherical or ball seat lug nuts/bolt must be used with spherical or ball seats. ONLY USE THE TYPE OF LUG NUT/BOLT COMPATIBLE WITH THE TYPE OF LUG SEAT.
3. When placing the wheel on the studs, there may be an apparent loosenes of fit until the lug nuts are applied.
4. Check the lug nut thread engagement. Every stud must be long enough to thread into the lug nut a legnth at least equal to the stud diameter. For example, a 1/2" thread diameter must thread into the lug nut at least 1/2". Check for this problem on every stud, some may be of different lenghts. Less than one stud thread diameter engagement is unsafe and will cause loos of lug nut torque. IF YOU DO NOT HAVE PROPER THREAD ENGAGEMENT, DO NOT INSTALL WHEELS.
5. Do not allow the lug nut to bottom out on the stud or a mag shank to bottom out on the mounting surface. This is extremely dangerous and unsafe because the clamping force of the lug nut is not being applied to the wheel. Check for these problems on every stud, some may be different lenghts. IF YOU FIND A PROBLEM, DO NOT INSTALL WHEELS.
6. Lug nuts must be tightened in a star or crisscross pattern to ensure uniform pressure and alignment. Apply torque evenly by repeating star or crisscross pattern until desired torque is reached.
During installation, gravity causes the wheel to rest upon the highest stud. If the wheel is clamped down off-center, it can be dangerous and damaging to your wheels and tires over time. Do not allow the wheel to "hang" on the studs during the initial tightening, make certain wheel is centered and wheel supported prior to tightening the lug nuts.
7. It is recommended that you do not use air or impact wrenches to tighten lug nuts. A calibrated torque wrench sould be used to ensure proper and safe installation.
8. For original equipment wheels, use manufacturer specifications. For aftermarket, if there is not a wheel manufacturer's specification in the owner's manual, contact the vehicle manufacturer. In the event that neither the wheel nor vehicle manufacturer give you the specifications, the following may serve as a guideline for passenger cars and light-trucks only:
Fastener Shank Diameter = Torque Range (FT/LBS)
(12mm = 75/85)
(14mm = 85/95)
(7/16" = 70/80)
(1/2" = 75/85)
(9/16" = 105/115)
(5/8" = 125/135)
9. Make sure you check new lug nuts against the vehicle lug wrench, making sure they are the same size.
10. If the new lug nuts/bolts have a different seat than the original equipment, make sure you keep enough of the original lug nuts/bolts with the spare tire/tire changing equipment so if need the spare tire can be mounted with the correct lug nuts/bolts.
All lug nuts/bolts must be checked and retorqued to the proper specification immediately after the first 25 miles of use. Installer must instruct the customer to retorque or return immediately after 25 miles, so installer can retorque. Failure to retorque is unsafe and could cause serious damage or injury. Retorquing must be done any time the lug nuts are removed for any reason.